Cách phòng cận thị cho giới học đường

Hệ thống thị giác của con người được cấu tạo để thực hiện các chức năng nhìn xa là chủ yếu. Khi nhìn gần quá mức, mắt luôn phải điều tiết mệt mỏi và dẫn đến hiện tượng thích nghi với nhìn gần, gây gia tăng độ cận thị, làm suy giảm khả năng nhìn xa của mắt.

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Đọc sách quá gần gây mỏi mắt, dễ dẫn đến cận thị. Ảnh minh họa.

Vệ sinh mắt hằng ngày là việc rất cần thiết, giúp làm giảm những căng thẳng về thị giác, thư giãn mắt và phòng tránh được cận thị học đường. Dưới đây là một số điều mỗi người nên làm để bảo vệ đôi mắt:

1. Nghỉ ngơi thị giác từng lúc

Đây là động tác đơn giản nhưng rất hữu ích, giúp mắt được thư giãn. Cứ làm việc khoảng 20 phút, bạn nên để mắt nhìn xa một đến 2 phút, hoặc nhắm mắt lại 30 giây đến một phút. Nếu cảm giác bị mờ nhoè đi, cần cho mắt nghỉ lâu hơn

Con người cũng cần chủ động kiểm soát việc chớp mắt, chớp mắt là một động tác sinh lý, giúp lớp nước mắt được trải đều trên bề mặt mắt, giúp mắt dễ chịu và giảm căng thẳng cho mắt.

Không nên làm việc bằng mắt quá 45 phút, học sinh cần ra sân chơi và tập thể dục giữa các tiết học, tránh đọc truyện, chơi game trong giờ giải lao. Trong ngày, mỗi người nên có thời gian thư giãn nhất định cho đôi mắt bằng cách tập nhìn xa hoặc thể dục vui chơi ở những nơi thoáng rộng.

2. Chú ý đến ánh sáng

Phòng học hoặc nơi làm việc nên được chiếu sáng đầy đủ bằng ánh sáng tự nhiên. Nếu không, bạn phải duy trì đủ ánh sáng bằng hệ thống đèn chiếu sáng ở các góc độ, tránh việc học, đọc bị khuất bóng do thiếu đèn.

3. Đọc và viết đúng khoảng cách quy định

Khoảng cách đọc sách và viết với học sinh lớn là 30-40cm. Học sinh nhỏ tuổi đọc cách khoảng 25cm. Việc đọc hoặc viết quá gần sẽ làm hệ thống thị giác phải nỗ lực điều tiết, làm mỏi mệt, gia tăng độ cận thị.

Nếu làm việc trên màn hình vi tính, bạn nên để khoảng cách 60cm để giảm thấp khả năng mắt phải điều tiết và những ảnh hưởng xấu của ánh sáng màn hình.

4. Tư thế

Tư thế ngay ngắn lưng và cổ thẳng sẽ giúp phòng tránh mỏi mệt và gù vẹo cột sống. Bạn cần tránh nằm khi đọc sách vì điều đó sẽ gây ra hiện tượng mắt khó khăn khi quy tụ, điều tiết, rất dễ mỏi và nhức mắt; tránh đọc sách khi đi tàu xe vì khoảng cách đọc bị thay đổi liên tục khi rung lắc rất có hại cho mắt.

5. Xem truyền hình

Con người chỉ nên xem truyền hình với thời lượng vừa phải khoảng một tiếng mỗi ngày. Nếu có các tật khúc xạ thì bạn nên đeo kính khi xem. TV cần để ở khoảng cách gấp 4 lần đường chéo của màn hình và không tắt đèn khi xem.

6. Chế độ dinh dưỡng

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Chế độ dinh dưỡng cho đôi mắt khỏe. Ảnh minh họa.

Chế độ dinh dưỡng đầy đủ và cân bằng dưỡng chất giúp nuôi dưỡng một đôi mắt sáng và mạnh khỏe. Các vi chất như vitamin A, E, C, chất khoáng có trong rau củ, trái cây tươi, thịt, cá biển, trứng giúp duy trì các môi trường trong suốt của mắt, giúp mắt tăng khả năng điều tiết, chống thoái hoá võng mạc và hoàng điểm của mắt. Một số trường hợp cận thị tiến triển nhanh có thể bổ sung dưỡng chất bằng các loại thuốc bổ mắt thông dụng.

7. Khám mắt định kỳ

Bạn nên đến khám bác sĩ chuyên khoa mắt định kỳ để được chỉnh tật khúc xạ và tư vấn cụ thể khi gặp những vấn đề về mắt.

Nguồn: vnepress.net

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