Bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ – nguyên nhân, triệu chứng và cách điều trị

Bệnh viêm phổi là một trong những bệnh hô hấp thường gặp ở trẻ nhỏ, đặc biệt khi thời tiết thay đổi. Nguyên nhân bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ là do cơ thể trẻ không thích nghi được với điều kiện thời tiết. Bệnh viêm phổi xuất hiện khi 1 hoặc 2 lá phổi trong cơ thể bạn bị viêm nhiễm.

Đôi nét về bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ

Đôi nét về bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ
Đôi nét về bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ

Túi phổi là màng khí mỏng thuộc hệ thống máu được gọi là mao quản. Khi nguồn khí oxy dồi dào đến được túi phổi, nguồn khí này có khả năng được hấp thụ vào hệ thống máu. Sau đó, những tế bào máu mang oxy tới khắp cơ thể. Cơ thể cần oxy để duy trì sự sống.

Nhưng khi phổi của bé bị viêm nhiễm, lá phổi của bé không thể cung cấp đủ lượng oxy cần thiết cho cơ thể. Sự viêm nhiễm đã tạo nên những phần tử làm tắc nghẽn màng phổi, không cho khí oxy vào sâu trong phổi. Vì thế, dấu hiệu viêm phổi dễ nhận biết nhất ở trẻ là thở gấp, nhất là khi cả hai lá phổi đều bị viêm nhiễm.

Bệnh viêm phổi có thể xuất hiện ở bất kỳ lứa tuổi nào, từ trẻ con cho đến người già. Viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ do một số loại vi khuẩn và vi rút gây ra. Khi cơ thể bị cúm hay nhiễm lạnh, bé cũng dễ bị viêm phổi nếu bệnh của bé không được điều trị kịp thời. Những căn bệnh ấy ảnh hưởng đến phổi, tạo ra một môi trường thuận lợi cho các vi khuẩn dễ dàng xâm nhập và chuyển thể thành bệnh viêm phổi.

Triệu chứng bệnh viêm phổi thường gặp

Phần lớn khi bị viêm phổi, bọn trẻ sẽ thấy mệt mỏi, sốt nhẹ. Những triệu chứng của bệnh sẽ phụ thuộc vào tình trạng sức khỏe của trẻ và nguyên nhân gây bệnh là vi rút hay vi khuẩn.

Nếu bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ do vi khuẩn gây ra, trẻ sẽ bị sốt nhưng thân nhiệt thấp khiến cơ thể trẻ lạnh cóng. Nếu bệnh do vi rút gây ra, tiến trình bệnh sẽ diễn ra chậm hơn và phải mất một khoảng thời gian dài trẻ mới bình phục.

Nói cách khác, một số dấu hiệu viêm phổi thường gặp là đau đầu, sốt, đau cơ ho tức ngực, khó thở.

Ngoài ra, trẻ có thể thở nhanh hơn bình thường và ho ra đờm. Viêm phổi ở trẻ em thậm chí còn ảnh hưởng tới dạ dày của trẻ khiến chúng cảm thấy chán ăn.

Điều trị bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ

Điều trị bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ
Điều trị bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ

– Để điều trị viêm phổi, bố mẹ cần đưa trẻ đến gặp bác sĩ chuyên khoa để được khám, xét nghiệm và chẩn đoán chính xác những triệu chứng của bệnh. Vì viêm phổi ở trẻ là một dạng bệnh có dấu hiệu gần giống với những bệnh phổi khác.

Bác sĩ sẽ nghe nhịp thở của bé để biết được phổi của bé đang trong tình trạng thế nào. Nếu nghi ngờ bé bị viêm phổi, bác sĩ sẽ cho bé chụp x quang. Khi tìm được nguyên nhân gây bệnh, nếu đó là do vi khuẩn bé sẽ được dùng thuốc kháng sinh để điều trị.

– Thuốc kháng sinh không có tác dụng nếu nguyên nhân gây bệnh là vi rút Trong trường hợp này, trẻ sẽ được chỉ định dùng thuốc ho và thuốc hạ sốt thông thường.

Thuốc điều trị viêm phổi sẽ được sử dụng tùy thuộc vào từng biểu hiện của bệnh ở trẻ nhỏ. Nếu thấy những triệu chứng bệnh viêm phổi ở trẻ nhỏ như trên, cần đưa con em mình đến các phòng khám để khám và chữa trị kịp thời.

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